Vitamin C, Ascorbic Acid

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Vitamin C, Ascorbic Acid

Systematic name: 2-Oxo-L-threo-hexono-1,4-lactone-2,3-enediol or (R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one
Bioavailability: rapid & complete
Protein binding: negligible
Half-life: varies according to plasma concentration
Excretion: renal
CAS number: 50-81-7
Other names: L-Ascorbic Acid, Free Acid; Vitamin C; L-(+)-Ascorbic acid; VC; ascorbic acid; Vita C BP2005; Vitamine C; ; L-threo-hex-1-enofuranos-3-ulose; (5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (non-preferred name); 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (non-preferred name); L(+)-Ascorbic acid
Formula: C6H8O6
Mol. mass: 176.12 g/mole
Density: 1.694 g/cm³
Melting point: 190 °C (374 °F)
Boiling point: 553 °C (1027 °F)

Vitamin C, also called L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate or ascorbic acid, is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. It is one of the most important of all vitamins. It plays a significant role as an antioxidant, thereby protecting body tissue from the damage of oxidation. Antioxidants act to protect your cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Free radicals can cause cell damage that may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Vitamin C has also been found to be an effective antiviral agent. It is also a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. In animals these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries.

Vitamin C is a common enzymatic co-factor in mammals used in the synthesis of collagen. Ascorbate is a powerful reducing agent capable of rapidly scavenging a number of reactive oxygen species. Freshwater teleost fishes also require dietary vitamin C in their diet or they will get scurvy. The most widely recognized symptoms of vitamin C deficiency in fishes are scoliosis, lordosis and dark skin coloration. Freshwater salmonids also show impaired collagen formation, internal/fin hemorrhage, spinal curvature and increased mortality. Vitamin C is found in high concentrations in immune cells, and is consumed quickly during infections. Besides, it is a natural antihistamine. It both prevents histamine release and increases the detoxification of histamine.

Vitamin C is essential to a healthy diet as well as being a highly effective antioxidant, acting to lessen oxidative stress; a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase in plants; and an enzyme cofactor for the biosynthesis of many important biochemicals. Vitamin C acts as an electron donor for important enzymes: collagen, carnitine, and tyrosine synthesis, and microsomal metabolism. scorbic acid performs numerous physiological functions in the human body. These functions include the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and neurotransmitters; the synthesis and catabolism of tyrosine; and the metabolism of microsome. And vitamin C is essential to the development and maintenance of scar tissue, blood vessels, and cartilage, essential for the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria for ATP generation. During biosynthesis ascorbate acts as a reducing agent, donating electrons and preventing oxidation to keep iron and copper atoms in their reduced states. Vitamin C's effect on the common cold has been extensively researched. It has not been shown effective in prevention or treatment of the common cold.

Related Names
Ascorbic Acid | Water-solubility Vitamin | Nutramin C | Auxohormome C

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